NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code® (2023)

, and its technical requirements respond to a wider range of concers, including, for example, crowd-safety. Code requirements that contribute to the safe movement of people during fire emergencies might also assist in responding to many other hazards that require decisions about where people can be safely located.

1.1.9 Areas Not Addressed. The Code does not address the following:

(1) General fire prevention or building construction features that are normally a function of fire prevention codes and building codes
(2) Prevention of injury incurred by an individual due to that individual's failure to use reasonable care
(3) Preservation of property from loss by Fire

1.2 Purpose. The Purpose of this Code is to provide minimum requirements, with due regard to function, for the design, operation, and maintenance of buildings and structures for safety to life from fire. Its provisions will also aid life safety in similar emergencies.

A.1.2 The Code endeavors to avoid requirements that might involve unreasonable hardships or unnecessary inconvenience or interference with the normal use and occupancy of a building but provides for fire safety consistent with the public interest.
Protection of occupants is achieved by the combination of prevention, protection, egress, and other features, with due regard to the capabilities and reliability of the features involved. The level of life safety from fire is defined through requirements directed at the following:

(1) Prevention of ignition
(2) Detection of fire
(3) Control of fire development
(4) Confinement of the effects of fire
(5) Extinguishment of fire
(6) Provision of refuge or evacuation facilities, or both
(7) Staff reaction
(8) Provision of fire safety information to occupants

1.3 Application.

1.3.1 New and Existing Buildings and Structures. The Code shall apply to both new construction and existing buildings and existing structures.

1.3.2 Vehicles and Vessels. The Code shall apply to vehicles, vessels, or other similar conveyances, as specified in Section 11.6, in which case such vehicles and vessels shall be treated as buildings.

1.4 Equivalency. Nothing in this Code is intended to prevent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability, and safety over those prescribed by this Code.

1.4.1 Technical Documentation. Technical documentation shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction to demonstrate equivalency.

1.4.2 Approval. The system, method, or device shall be approved for the intended purpose by the authority having jurisdiction.

1.4.3 Equivalent Compliance. Alternative systems, methods, or devices approved as equivalent by the authority having jurisdiction shall be recognized as being in compliance with this Code.

1.5 Units and Formulas.

1.5.1 SI Units. Metric unites of measurement in this Code are in accordance with the modernized metric system known as the International System of Units (SI).

1.5.2 Primary Values. The inch-pound value for a measurement, and the SI value given in parentheses, shall each be acceptable for use as primary units for satisfying the requirements of this Code.

1.6 Enforcement. This Code shall be administered and enforced by the authority having jurisdiction designated by the governing authority.


Chapter 7 Means of Egress

7.9 Emergency Lighting

7.9.1 General.

7.9.1.1 Emergency lighting facilities for means of egress shall be provided in accordance with Section 7.9 for the following:

(1) Buildings or structures where required in Chapters 11 through 43
(2) Underground and limited access structures as addressed in Section 11.7
(3) High rise buildings as required by other sections of this Code
(4) Doors equipped with delayed-egress locks
(5) Stair shafts and vestibules of smokeproof enclosures, for which the following also apply:

    (a) The stair shaft and vestibule shall be permitted to include a standby generator that is installed for the smokeproof enclosure mechanical ventilation equipment.
    (b) The standby generator shall be permitted to be used for the stair shaft and vestibule emergency lighting power supply.
(6) New sensor-release of electrical locking systems in accordance with 7.2.1.6.2

a.7.9.1.1 Emergency lighting outside the building should provide illumination to either a public way or a distance away from the building that is considered safe, whichever is closest to the building being evacuated.

7.9.1.2 For the purposes of 7.9.1.1, exit access shall include only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, and passageways leading to an exit. For the purpose of 7.9.1.1, exit discharge shall include only designated stairs, ramps, aisles, walkways, and escalators leading to a public way.

7.9.1.3 Where maintenance of illumination depends upon changing from one energy source to another, a delay of not more than 10 seconds shall be permitted.

7.9.2 Performance of System.

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7.9.2.1 Emergency illumination shall be provided for a minimum of 1½ hours in the event of failure of normal lighting.

7.9.2.1.1 Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is not less than an average of 1 ft-candle (10.8 lux) and, at any point, not less than 0.1 ft-candle (1.1 lux), measured along the path of egress at floor level.

7.9.2.1.2 Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to not less than an average of 0.6 ft-candle (6.5 lux) and, at any point, not less than 0.06 ft-candle (0.65 lux) at the end of 1½ hours.

7.9.2.1.3 The maximum-to-minimum illumination shall not exceed a ratio of 40 to 1.

7.9.2.2 New emergency power systems for emergency lighting shall be at least Type 10, Class 1.5, Level 1, in accordance with NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems.

7.9.2.3 The emergency lighting system shall be arranged to provide the required illumination automatically in the event of any interruption of normal lighting due to any of the following:

(1) Failure of public utility or other outside electrical power supply
(2) Opening of a circuit breaker or fuse
(3) Manual act(s), including accidental opening of a switch controlling normal lighting facilities.

A.7.9.2.3 Where emergency lighting is provided by automatic transfer between normal power service and an emergency generator, it is the intent to prohibit the installation, for any reason, of a single switch that can interrupt both energy sources.

7.9.2.4 Emergency generators and related transfer switch equipment that provide power to emergency lighting systems shall be installed, inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 110. Stored electrical energy systems, where required in this Code, other than battery systems for emergency luminaires in accordance with NFPA 7.9.2.5, shall be installed, inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 111.

7.9.2.5 Unit equipment and battery systems for emergency luminaires shall be listed to ANSI/UL 924, Standard for Emergency Lighting and Power Equipment.

7.9.2.6 Existing battery-operated emergency lights shall use only reliable types of rechargeable batteries provided with suitable facilities for maintaining them in properly charged condition. Batteries used in such lights or units shall be approved for their intended use and shall comply with NFPA 70.

7.9.2.7 The emergency lighting system shall be either continuously in operation or capable of repeated automatic operation without manual intervention.

7.9.3 Periodic Testing of Emergency Lighting Equipment.

7.9.3.1 Required emergency lighting systems shall be tested in accordance with one of the four options offered by 7.9.3.1.1, 7.9.3.1.2, 7.9.3.1.3, or 7.9.3.1.4.

7.9.3.1.1 Testing of required emergency lighting systems shall be permitted to be conducted as follows:

(1) Functional testing shall be conducted monthly, with a minimum of 3 weeks and a maximum of 5 weeks between tests, for not less than 30 seconds, except as otherwise permitted by 7.9.3.1.1(2).
(2) The test internval shall be permitted to be extended beyond 30 days with the approval of the authority having jurisdiction.
(3) Functional testing shall be conducted annually for a minimum of 1½ hours if the emergency lighting system is battery powered.
(4) The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully operational for the duration of the tests required by 7.9.3.1.1(2) and 7.9.3.1.1(3).
(5) Written records of visual inspections and tests shall be kept by the owner for inspection by the authority having jurisdiction.

A.7.9.3.1.1(2) Technical justification for extending test intervals past 30 days should be based on recorded event history (data) and should include evaluation of the following criteria:

(1) Number of egress lighting units
(2) Number of 30-second tests for analysis
(3) Re-evaluation period (confirm or adjust interval(s)
(4) Number of fixtures found obstructed
(5) Number of fixtures found misaligned
(6) Fixtures found to be missing
(7) Fixtures found damaged
(8) Battery design
(9) Type of light source
(10) Fixture design (manufacturer)
(11) Number of light fixtures per exit path
(12) Existence of fire, smoke, and thermal barriers
(13) Evacuation capability
(14) Maximum egress time
(15) Hours of occupancy
(16) Number of recorded bulb failures
(17) Number of recorded fixture failures
(18) Single fixture reliability
(19) Repairs — mean time to repair
(20) Lighted egress path probability of success or failure — monthly upper tolerance limit
(21) Lighted egress path probability of success or failure — quarterly upper tolerance limit (estimated)

7.9.3.1.2 Testing of required emergency lighting systems shall be permitted to be conducted as follows:

(1) Self-testing/self-diagnostic emergency battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall be provided.
(2) Not less than once every 30 days, self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall automatically perform a test with a duration of a minimum 30 seconds and a diagnostic routine.
(3) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall indicate failures by a status indicator.
(4) A visual inspection shall be performed at internvals not exceeding 30 days.
(5) Functional testing shall be conducted annually for a minimum of 1½ hours.
(6) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall be fully operational for the duration of the 1½-hour test.
(7) Written records of visual inspections and test shall be kept by the owner for inspection by the authority having jurisdiction.

7.9.3.1.3 Testing of required emergency lighting systems shall be permitted to be conducted as follows:

(1) Computer-based, self-testing/self-diagnostic battery operated emergency lighting equipment shall be provided.
(2) Not less than once every 30 days, emergency lighting equipment shall automatically perform a test with a duration of a minimum of 30 seconds and a diagnostic routine.
(3) The emergency lighting equipment shall automatically perform annually a test for a minimum of 1½ hours.
(4) The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully operational for the duration of the tests required by 7.9.3.1.3(2) and 7.9.3.1.3(3).
(5) The computer-based system shall be capable of providing a report of the history of tests and failures at all times.

7.9.3.1.4 Testing of required emergency lighting systems shall be permitted to be conducted in accordance with 7.9.2.4.

7.10 Marking of Means of Egress

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7.10.1 General.

7.10.1.1 Where required. Means of egress shall be marked in accordance with Section 7.10 where required in Chapters 11 through Chapter 43.

7.10.2 Exits.

7.10.1.2.1 Exits, other than main exterior exit doors that obviously and clearly are identifiable as exits, shall be marked by an approved sign that is readily visible from any direction of exit access.

7.10.1.2.2 Horizontal components of the egress path within an exit enclosure shall be marked by approved exit or directional exit signs where the continuation of the egress path is not obvious.

A.7.10.1.2.2 The direction of travel to the exit discharge within a stair enclosure with horizontal components in excess of the typical landings might need additional signage to be readily visible or obvious. Exit signs should be installed above doors through which the egress path leads.

7.10.1.3 Exit Door Tactile Signage. Tactile signage shall be provided to meet all the following criteria, unless otherwise provided in 7.10.1.4:

(1) Tactile signage shall be located at each door requiring an exit sign.
(2) Tactile signage shall read as follows: EXIT.
(3) Tactile signage shall comply with ICC/ANSI A117.1, American National Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities.

7.10.1.4 Existing Exemption. The requirements of 7.10.1.3 shall not apply to existing buildings, provided that the occupancy classification does not change.

7.10.1.5 Exit Access.

7.10.1.5.1 Access to exits shall be marked by approved, readily visible signs in all cases where the exit or way to reach the exit is not readily apparent to the occupants.

7.10.1.5.2 New sign placement shall be such that no point in the exit access corridor is in excess of the rated viewing distance or 100 ft (30 m), whichever is less, from the nearest sign.

A.7.10.1.5.2 For externally illuminated signs in accordance with 7.10.6 and internally illuminated signed listed without a marked viewing distance, the rated viewing distance should be considered to be 100 ft (30 m). Where placing signs at their rated viewing distance requires them to be placed above the line of sight, consideration should be given to proportionally increasing the size of the exit legend to compensate for the additional straight-line distance between the viewer and the sign.

7.10.1.6 Floor Proximity Exit Signs. Where floor proximity exit signs are required in Chapters 11 through 43, such signs shall comply with 7.10.3, 7.10.4, 7.10.5, and 7.10.6 for externally illuminated signs and 7.10.7 for internally illuminated signs. Such signs shall be located near the floor level in addition to those signs required for doors or corridors. The bottom of the sign shall be not less than 6 in. (150 mm), but not more than 18 in. (455 mm), above the floor. For exit doors, the sign shall be mounted on the door or adjacent to the door, with the nearest edge of the sign within 4 in. (100 mm) of the door frame.

A.7.10.1.6 See A.7.10.3.

7.10.1.7 Floor Proximity Egress Path Marking. Where floor proximity egress path marking is required in Chapters 11 through 43, an approved floor proximity egress path marking system that is internally illuminated shall be installed within 18 in. (455 mm) of the floor. Floor proximity egress path marking systems shall be listed in accordance with ANSI/UL 1994, Standard for Luminous Egress Path Marking Systems. The system shall provide a visible delineation of the path of travel along the designated exit access and shall be essentially continuous, except as interrupted by doorways, hallways, corridors, or other such architectural features. The system shall operate continuously or at any time the building fire alarm is activated. The activation, duration, and continuity of operation of the system shall be in accordance with 7.9.2. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the product manufacturing listing.

7.10.1.8 Visibility. Every sign required in Section 7.10 shall be located and of such size, distinctive color, and design that it is readily visible and shall provide contrast with decorations, interior finish, or other signs. No decorations, furnishings, or equipment that impairs visibility of a sign shall be permitted. No brightly illuminated sign (for other than exit purposes), display, or object in or near the line of vision of the required exit sign that could detract attention from the exit sign shall be permitted.

7.10.1.9 Mounting Location. The bottom of new egress markings shall be located at a vertical distance of not more than 6 ft 8 in. (2030 mm) above the top edge of the egress opening intended for designation by that marking. Egress markings shall be located at a horizontal distance of not more than the required width of the egress opening, as measured from the edge of the egress opening intended for designation by that marking to the nearest edge of the marking.

7.10.2 Directional Signs.

7.10.2.1 A sign complying with 7.10.3, with a directional indicator showing the direction of travel, shall be placed in every location where the direction of travel to reach the nearest exit is not apparent.

7.10.2.2 Directional exit signs shall be provided within horizontal components of the egress path within exit enclosures as required by 7.10.1.2.2.

7.10.3 Sign Legend.

7.10.3.1 Signs required by 7.10.1 and 7.10.2 shall read as follows in plainly legible letters, or other appropriate wording shall be used:

EXIT

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7.10.3.2 Where approved by the authority having jurisdiction, pictograms in compliance with NFPA 170, Standard for Fire Safety and Emergency Symbols, shall be permitted.

A.7.10.3.2 Pictograms are permitted to be used in lieu of, or in additional to, signs with text.

7.10.4 Power Source. Where emergency lighting facilities are required by the applicable provisions of Chapter 11 through Chapter 43 for individual occupancies, the signs, other than approved self-luminous signs and listed photoluminescent signs in accordance with 7.10.7.2, shall be illuminated by the emergency lighting facilities. The level of illumination of the signs shall be in accordance with with 7.10.6.3 or 7.10.7 for the required emergency lighting duration as specified in 7.9.2.1. However, the level of illumination shall be permitted to decline to 60 percent at the end of the emergency lighting duration.

7.10.5 Illumination of Signs.

7.10.5.1 General. Every sign required by 7.10.1.2 or 7.10.1.5, or 7.10.8.1, other than where operations or processes require low lighting levels, shall be suitably illuminated by a reliable light source. Externally and internally illuminated signs shall be legible in both the normal and emergency lighting mode.

A.7.10.5.1 See A.7.8.1.3(4).

7.10.5.2 Continuous Illumination.

7.10.5.2.1 Every sign required to be illuminated by 7.10.6.3, 7.10.7, and 7.10.8.1 shall be continuously illuminated as required under the provisions of Section 7.8, unless otherwise provided in 7.10.5.2.2.

7.10.5.2.2 Illumination for signs shall be permitted to flash on and off upon activation of the fire alarm system.

7.10.6 Externally Illuminated Signs.

7.10.6.1 Size of Signs.

7.10.6.1.1 Externally illuminated signs required by 7.10.1 and 7.10.2, other than approved existing signs, unless otherwise provided in 7.10.6.1.2, shall read EXIT or shall use other appropriate wording in plainly legible letters sized as follows:

(1) For new signs, the letters shall be not less than 6 in. (150 mm) high, with the principal strokes of letters not less than 3/4 in. (19 mm) wide.
(2) For existing signs, the required wording shall be permitted to be plainly legible letters not less than 4 in. (100 mm) high.
(3) The word EXIT shall be in letters of a width not less than 2 in. (51 mm), except the letter I, and the minimum spacing between letters shall be not less than 3/8 in. (9.5 mm).
(4) Sign legend elements larger than the minimum established in 7.10.6.1.1(1) through 7.10.6.1.1(3) shall use letter widths, strokes, and spacing in proportion to their height.

7.10.6.1.2 The requirements of 7.10.6.1.1 shall not apply to marking required by 7.10.1.3 and 7.10.1.7.

7.10.6.2 Size and location of Directional Indicator.

7.10.6.2.1 Directional indicators, unless otherwise provided in 7.10.6.2.2, shall comply with the following:

(1) The directional indicator shall be located outside of the EXIT legend, not less than 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) from any letter.
(2) The directional indicator shall be of a chevron type, as shown in Figure 7.10.6.2.1.
(3) The directional indicator shall be identifiable as a directional indicator at a distance of 40 ft (12 m).
(4) A directional indicator larger than the minimum established for compliance with 7.10.6.2.1(3) shall be proportionately increased in height, width and stroke.
(5) The directional indicator shall be located at the end of the sign for the direction indicated.


7.10.6.2.2 The requirements of 7.10.6.2.1 shall not apply to approved existing signs.

7.10.6.3 Level of Illumination. Externally illuminated signs shall be illuminated by not less than 5 ft-candles (54 lux) at the illuminated surface and shall have a contrast ratio of not less than 0.5.

7.10.7 Internally Illuminated Signs.

7.10.7.1 Listing. Internally illuminated signs shall be listed in accordance with ANSI/UL 924, Standard for Safety Emergency Lighting and Power Equipment, unless they meet one of the following criteria:

(1) They are approved existing signs.
(2) They are existing signs having the required wording in legible letters not less than 4 in. (100 mm) high.
(3) They are signs that are in accordance with 7.10.1.3 and 7.10.1.6.

7.10.7.2 Photoluminescent Signs. The face of a photoluminescent sign shall be continually illuminated while the building is occupied. The illumination levels on the face of the photoluminescent sign shall be in accordance with its listing. The charging illumination shall be a reliable light source, as determined by the authority having jurisdiction. The charging light source, shall be of a type specified in the product markings.

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A.7.10.7.2 Photoluminescent signs need a specific minimum level of light on the face of the sign to ensure that the sign is charged for emergency operation and legibility in both the normal and emergency modes. Additionally, the type of light source (e.g., incandescent, fluorescent, halogen, metal halide) is important. Each light source produces different types of visible and invisible light (e.g., UV) that might affect the ability of some photoluminescent signs to charge and might also affect the amount of light output available during emergency mode. This type of sign would not be suitable where the illumination levels are permitted to decline. the charging light source should not be connected to automatic timers, because continuous illumination of the sign is needed; otherwise, the sign illumination would not be available, because it would be discharged.

7.10.8 Special Signs.

7.10.8.1 Sign Illumination.

7.10.8.1.1 Where required by other provisions of this Code, special signs shall be illuminated in accordance with 7.10.5, 7.10.6.3, and 7.10.7.

A.7.10.8.1.1 Special signs require sufficient illumination in order for them to be readable at close proximity. They are not expected to be of a size or illumination level necessary to be readable from a distance, as is the case for an exit sign.

7.10.8.1.2 Where emergency lighting facilities are required by the applicable provisions of Chapters 11 through 43, the required illumination of special signs shall additionally be provided under emergency lighting conditions.

7.10.8.2 Characters. Special signs, where required by other provisions of this Code, shall comply with the visual character requirements of ICC/ANSI A117.1, American National Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities.

7.10.8.3 No Exit.

7.10.8.3.1 Any door, passage, or stairway that is neither an exit nor a way of exit access and that is located or arranged so that it is likely to be mistaken for an exit shall be identified by a sign that reads as follows:

NO

EXIT


7.10.8.3.2 The NO EXIT sign shall have the word NO in letters 2 in. (51 mm) high, with a stroke width of 3/8 in. (9.5 mm), and the word EXIT in letters 1 in. (25 mm) high, with the word EXIT below the word NO, unless such sign is an approved existing sign.

7.10.8.4 Elevator Signs. Elevators that are a part of a means of egress (see 7.2.13.1) shall have both of the following signs with a minimum letter height of 5/8 in. (16 mm) posted in every elevator lobby:

(1) Signs that indicate that the elevator can be used for egress, including any restrictions on use
(2) Signs that indicate the operational status of elevators

7.10.8.5 Evacuation Diagram. Where a posted floor evacuation diagram is required in Chapters 11 through 43, floor evacuation diagrams reflecting the actual floor arrangement and exit locations shall be posted and oriented in a location and manner acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction.

7.10.9 Testing and Maintenance.

7.10.9.1 Inspection. Exit signs shall be visually inspected for operation of the illumination sources at intervals not to exceed 30 days or shall be periodically monitored in accordance with 7.9.3.1.3.

7.10.9.2 Testing. Exit signs connected to, or provided with a battery-operated emergency illumination source, where required in 7.10.4, shall be tested and maintained in accordance with 7.9.3.


7.13 Normally Unoccupied Building Service Equipment Support Areas.

7.13.3 Means of Egress Path.

7.13.3.6 Exit signage shall not be required along the means of egress path within normally unoccupied building service equipment support areas.

7.13.4 Illumination.

7.13.4.1 The minimum illumination of means of egress along the required means of egress path shall be 0.2 ft-candle (2.2 lux), except as otherwise provided in 7.13.4.2.

7.13.4.2 Illumination of means of egress shall not be required in normally unoccupied building service equipment support areas where illumination of means of egress is not required by the applicable occupancy chapter for the remainder of the building.

FAQs

What are the most important NFPA codes? ›

NFPA Standards: numbers to remember
  • 1 - Fire Code.
  • 70 - Electric Code.
  • 101 - Life Safety Code.
  • 220 - Types of Building Construction.
  • 291 - Recommended Practice for Fire Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants.
  • 472 - Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents.

What is the meaning of life safety? ›

Life Safety means actions taken to prevent the endangerment of people threatened by emergency incidents or by activities associated with the management.

What is the latest NFPA 101 code? ›

The Life Safety Code, 2018 (NFPA 101, 2018) is a model code produced by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). This document provides the foundation for many state and city codes. The NFPA 101, 2018 combined with local jurisdiction amendments form the state codes.

What was the primary motivating factor for Creating the Life Safety Code? ›

Created in 1913 by NFPA's Committee on Safety to Life, the Life Safety Code was designed to bring attention to a building's potential hazards.

How many NFPA codes are there? ›

NFPA publishes more than 300 consensus codes and standards intended to minimize the possibility and effects of fire and other risks. NFPA codes and standards, administered by more than 260 Technical Committees comprising approximately 10,000 volunteers, are adopted and used throughout the world.

Is NFPA code or standard? ›

The NFPA has few codes; most of its documents are standards. See the full list of NFPA codes and standards. The NFPA traces its very origin to the need for a standard. In the late 19th century, automatic sprinkler systems came into use as an effective way to put out fires.

What does the Life Safety Code cover? ›

The LSC is a set of fire protection requirements designed to provide a reasonable degree of safety from fire. It covers construction, protection, and operational features designed to provide safety from fire, smoke, and panic.

What is the difference between NFPA 1 and 101? ›

The different requirements of NFPA 1 and NFPA 101 are sometimes, incorrectly, perceived as a conflict, but they are not. The scope of NFPA 1 includes occupant safety, emergency responder safety, and property protection; the scope of NFPA 101 is limited to occupant life safety.

What is included in a life safety plan? ›

A life safety plan sets out how building occupants will be alerted to an emergency situation and evacuated from a building or public space. It's specific to a particular location and it must address the needs of everyone who uses or may use the space or building.

Where is NFPA 101 adopted? ›

The publication Life Safety Code, known as NFPA 101, is a consensus standard widely adopted in the United States. It is administered, trademarked, copyrighted, and published by the National Fire Protection Association and, like many NFPA documents, is systematically revised on a three-year cycle.

What is the NFPA Why is it important for healthcare providers? ›

NFPA 99 establishes criteria for levels of health care services or systems based on risk to the patients, staff, or visitors in health care facilities to minimize the hazards of fire, explosion, and electricity.

How often should hospitals hold fire drills? ›

Fire drills in healthcare occupancies must include the transmission of a fire alarm signal and simulation of emergency fire conditions. Section 19.7. 1.6 continues to say fire drills must be conducted quarterly on every shift to familiarize staff with the signals and emergency action required under varied conditions.

Does NFPA 101 apply to existing buildings? ›

NFPA 101 has no such clause and applies to both new and existing buildings. Thus, where NFPA 5000 focuses on the design and construction of new buildings, NFPA 101 applies to both new and existing buildings with a focus on safety during the entire lifecycle of the building not just the initial design and construction.

Are elevators considered life safety? ›

The 2012 NFPA 101 Life Safety Code provides minimum life safety requirements for the design, operation, and maintenance of buildings and structures. Examples include emergency loads such as elevators, emergency lighting, emergency egress lighting, alarm systems, ventilation, smoke control, fire pumps, and more.

Is NFPA mandatory? ›

In most cases, compliance with NFPA standards is voluntary. However, in some cases, federal or state Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) agencies have incorporated wording from NFPA standards into regulations. In these cases, complying with the standards is mandatory.

What NFPA stands for? ›

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is a global self-funded nonprofit organization, established in 1896, devoted to eliminating death, injury, property and economic loss due to fire, electrical and related hazards.

Are NFPA and ISO standard the same? ›

Overlapping Standards

Both the NFPA and ISO have standards in place that apply to fire safety and prevention. These two sets of standards are not exactly the same, but they do have a lot of overlap.

Why are NFPA codes important? ›

Its intention is always to minimize any risk of fire in a building, and safety has been this organization's concern since 1896. NFPA develops and publishes more than 300 consensus codes and standards meant to minimize the possibility and effects of fire and other risks.

Why is NFPA important? ›

NFPA delivers information and knowledge through more than 300 consensus codes and standards, research, training, education, outreach and advocacy; and by partnering with others who share an interest in furthering our mission. Our mission is to help save lives and reduce loss with information, knowledge and passion.

What fire resulted in the creation of the NFPA 101 Life Safety Code? ›

Unique in the field, it is the only document that covers life safety in both new and existing structures.” It was the Triangle Shirtwaist fire that prompted the creation of NFPA's Committee on Safety to Life which laid the groundwork for NFPA 101, still referenced by thousands of fire prevention professionals today.

Which NFPA Standard outlines life safety requirements by building occupancy type? ›

NFPA 101, Life Safety Code.

What is the NFPA 701 test? ›

This test measures the flammability of a fabric when it is exposed to specific sources of ignition. NFPA 701 (Small Scale) testing measures the ignition resistance of a fabric after it is exposed to a flame for 12 seconds. The flame, char length, and flaming residue are recorded.

What are the three components of egress NFPA 101? ›

As a reminder, the means of egress is made up of three parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge. Exit access includes all travel within occupied areas of the building leading up to an exit.

Is NFPA enforceable? ›

NFPA® and ICC® codes reference various organizations' standards within their requirements, and, once the code is implemented by the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ), these referenced standards are a legally enforceable part of the code.

How many fire extinguishers are required per square foot? ›

A fire extinguisher, rated not less than 2A, shall be provided for each 3,000 square feet of the protected building area, or major fraction thereof. Travel distance from any point of the protected area to the nearest fire extinguisher shall not exceed 100 feet.

How do you make a life safety plan? ›

Here are some essential steps to get your life safety plan on a good foot:
  1. Be aware of building codes. ...
  2. Know how the building functions. ...
  3. Have Portable Fire Extinguishers. ...
  4. Have Defend-in-Place Fire Protection Equipment. ...
  5. Have fire suppression systems designed and installed. ...
  6. Have a Prepared Evacuation Plan.
12 Dec 2012

What are fire and life safety drawings? ›

Fire & Life Safety Plan Drawings and Assessments

Life Safety Drawings & Plans (LSDP) are the basis of a Life Safety Assessment and Statement of Condition, and serve as map of all the elements of a comprehensive fire barrier and fire/life safety management system.

What is life safety in architecture? ›

life-safety system, Any interior building element designed to protect and evacuate the building population in emergencies, including fires and earthquakes, and less critical events, such as power failures.

How is NFPA enforced? ›

Since the NFPA is not a governmental agency, they don't actually have any enforcement authority at all. They are just a private organization that works to help to create standards based on data and information gathered from businesses around the world.

What is the difference between IBC and NFPA? ›

While the IBC addresses a broad range of concerns with regard to building safety, including fire safety, the NFPA 101 addresses concerns relating to the construction, protection, and occupancy features necessary to minimize the danger to life from the effects of fire.

What fire codes are used in the US? ›

NFPA 1: Fire Code is adopted and enforceable in 19 states. Every state uses portions or an edition of NFPA 101: Life Safety Code, and it has been fully adopted by 43 states. In contrast, the NFPA's competing document to the IBC—NFPA 5000: Building Construction and Safety Code—is only used by reference in 7 states.

What is NFPA 99 risk assessment? ›

This risk assessment tool has been developed to help health care facility staff comply with the risk-based, patient-focused approach required by NFPA 99: Health Care Facilities Code beginning with the 2012 edition.

What version of NFPA does CMS use? ›

Health care providers that participate in federal reimbursement programs are mandated to meet the new (CMS) COP based on the 2012 NFPA 101: Life Safety Code and NFPA 99: Health Care Facilities Code.

What organization is involved with fire safety regulations? ›

The organization that is involved with fire safety regulations is the National Fire Protection Association (the NFPA).

Does NFPA require fire drills? ›

Currently, emergency egress (fire) drills are required every month the facility is in session. If the facility is located in a climate where the weather is severe—snow or extreme temperatures, for example—the monthly drill can be deferred as long as at least four drills have been conducted.

What is the evacuation time for fire drill? ›

(b) The successful evacuation of the inmates to reach a place of safety within the floor viz., protected staircase, protected lift lobby, Refuge area or Assembly point outside the building within reasonable time (2 ½ minutes) before the spread of smoke, fire and heat is the essence of evaluating the fire & emergency ...

Does NFPA require evacuation maps? ›

Although not mandated for all buildings, NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®, requires that workplaces, healthcare facilities, educational institutions and other occupancies provide evacuation/relocation plan information and routinely schedule and hold drills when practicable.

Why are NFPA codes important? ›

Its intention is always to minimize any risk of fire in a building, and safety has been this organization's concern since 1896. NFPA develops and publishes more than 300 consensus codes and standards meant to minimize the possibility and effects of fire and other risks.

What is the importance of NFPA? ›

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is a global self-funded nonprofit organization, established in 1896, devoted to eliminating death, injury, property and economic loss due to fire, electrical and related hazards.

Is NFPA 72 a code or standard? ›

The NFPA 72 (National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code) is a standard published by the National Fire Protection Association every 3 years for installation of fire alarm systems and emergency communication systems in the United States.

What is the difference between NFPA 1 and 101? ›

The different requirements of NFPA 1 and NFPA 101 are sometimes, incorrectly, perceived as a conflict, but they are not. The scope of NFPA 1 includes occupant safety, emergency responder safety, and property protection; the scope of NFPA 101 is limited to occupant life safety.

Is NFPA mandatory? ›

In most cases, compliance with NFPA standards is voluntary. However, in some cases, federal or state Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) agencies have incorporated wording from NFPA standards into regulations. In these cases, complying with the standards is mandatory.

Is the NFPA a legal requirement? ›

The NFPA creates a variety of safety standards that are designed to help reduce the risk of fire, and allow emergency responders to safely put fires out should they occur. The NFPA, however, does not have any enforcement authority on its own, which means on the surface these codes are not legally mandatory.

Is NFPA code legal? ›

The NFPA, though, is a non-profit organization. Governments use the NFPA as their law, and governments can and do enforce the NFPA Code. The NFPA can't make rules or laws that we have to obey; the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is a citizen run organization.

Which NFPA symbol indicates the greatest risk? ›

"0" indicates no hazard and "4" indicates the most severe hazard. The white diamond uses different symbols to indicate different special hazards. The diamond can include: A strike-out W (W), for when the chemical reacts with water.

What is the NFPA scale? ›

NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) RATING SYSTEM

Chemical substances are rated for degree of HEALTH RISK (blue diamond), FLAMMABILITY (red diamond), REACTIVITY (yellow diamond), on a scale of 0 to 4.

Which NFPA symbol indicates health risk? ›

The National Fire Association (NFPA) has developed a color-coded number system called NFPA 704. The system uses a color-coded diamond with four quadrants in which numbers are used in the upper three quadrants to signal the degree of health hazard (blue), flammability hazard (red), and reactivity hazard (yellow).

Is NFPA 72 a law? ›

It would not be unheard of for the 2007 edition of NFPA 72 being the code adopted as law and in force even though the 2010, 2013, and 2016 versions have released by NFPA.

What NFPA 75? ›

Standard for the Fire Protection of Information Technology Equipment. This standard covers the requirements for the protection of information technology equipment and information technology equipment areas from fire damage by fire or its associated effects--smoke, corrosion, heat, and water.

What NFPA 71? ›

NFPA 1971 protects fire fighting personnel by establishing minimum levels of protection from thermal, physical, environmental, and bloodborne pathogen hazards encountered during structural and proximity fire fighting operations.

What does the Life Safety Code cover? ›

The LSC is a set of fire protection requirements designed to provide a reasonable degree of safety from fire. It covers construction, protection, and operational features designed to provide safety from fire, smoke, and panic.

Does NFPA 101 apply to existing buildings? ›

NFPA 101 has no such clause and applies to both new and existing buildings. Thus, where NFPA 5000 focuses on the design and construction of new buildings, NFPA 101 applies to both new and existing buildings with a focus on safety during the entire lifecycle of the building not just the initial design and construction.

What are the three components of egress NFPA 101? ›

As a reminder, the means of egress is made up of three parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge. Exit access includes all travel within occupied areas of the building leading up to an exit.

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